What Does a Curved Hubble Line Mean?

By Steven J. Grisafi, PhD.

In my previous post to this forum I indicated that the discovery of a curved Hubble graph line is being presented to the American public described using only the terminology of relativity theory. The proper medium of discourse among scientists is not appropriate for the presentation of science discoveries to the general public. The most familiar paradigm with which to describe extra-terrestrial discoveries has been for the past century, and continues to be, relativity theory. Scientists recognize that relativity theory is at odds with quantum theory. The two theories cannot co-exist together. One of the two is wrong. Quantum theory is more amenable to experimentation and has proven successful. The realm of relativity theory falls within the discipline of astronomy, which is not amenable to experimentation to the extent that quantum theory is. Yet, the most significant argument in favor of quantum theory over relativity theory is that relativity theory predicts non-zero momentum for a system at rest. This is so egregious a violation of the fundamentals of mechanics that it is astonishing to me that anyone continues to defend relativity theory.

Despite this, we continue to see portrayed within news media, and the entertainment industries, the continued impression that relativity theory is not just valid, but indispensable. This occurs primarily within the United States, and the United States has come to dominate English language discourse. In America few persons know that relativity theory was never accepted by the Soviet Union. The usual rebuttal to the presentation of this fact is that the soviets were ant-Semites. Yet their anti-semitism never precluded their acceptance of Marxism. Relativity theory has given the superficial impression of correctly predicting certain phenomena because it was built upon two very fundamental, and truly valid, physical laws: Newton’s Law of Gravitation and the Lorentz transformations. It is because nearly all measurements made within astronomy utilize electromagnetic radiation, for which the Lorentz transformations must be applied, that relativity theory has enjoyed its illusion of success. The success is actually due to the validity of the Lorentz transformations and Newton’s Law of Gravitation.

I explained that the awarding of the 2011 Nobel Prize in physics was based upon the discovery that the Hubble line is not straight, as Edwin Hubble measured it, but is actually curved. The implications of the curvature of this line have been explained to the general public using the terminology of relativity theory. So, is there an alternative explanation? Yes, of course, there are probably very many. But let’s just look at what the data is actually saying. The curvature of the Hubble line indicates that the frequencies of the light reaching earth from the farthest galaxies are not red-shifted to the extent we expect them to be presuming the need that their red-shifts be consistent with the light reaching us from closer galaxies. When the red-shifts from all galaxies, both far and near, are consistent with one another the Hubble line is straight. But measurements show that it is not straight. The light reaching us from the farthest galaxies has not lost as much energy as we expected it should. So why is this?

It could very well be that the rate of expansion of the universe has not been constant. This is the proposal of the relativity theory adherents. I do not reject this possibility. Yet, it is very much like putting epicycles on the planets orbits to make the data conform to our model. Few lay persons are aware that the hypothesis of the Big Bang results from a failure of the mathematics of relativity theory. We all learned in elementary school that division by zero is undefined, yet this is the basis for the Big Bang hypothesis. Hubble’s observation of the expanding universe led Einstein to alter his relativity theory such that he abandoned its constant of integration, the so-called cosmological constant, to discard the stationary state solutions he originally proposed and to embrace now the solution of a run-away transient. In essence, what he did was to embrace a failure of the mathematics and use it to propose a physical mechanism. No wonder the soviets gagged at this.

I once heard an astronomer argue that because we observe the galaxies all around us to be moving away from us that means that at one time the galaxies were all together. People, this is truly reaching for straws. All we should say is what we observe and draw no further inferences from it. Now we have this observation of the curved Hubble line, which would seem to suggest that the universe is experiencing a run-away inflation transient. However, then there is Resonance Universe Theory (RUT), which suffers no mathematical singularities, yet is still consistent with the Big bang hypothesis, but does not require it. RUT tells us more. It indicates that (empty) space is a dielectric. I put the word “empty” within parenthesis but no space is truly empty. Empty space is teeming with transient particles that suddenly appear, and just as quickly, vanish. Space that is described as empty means that it is devoid of permanent matter. It is the virtual particles of empty space that impart to it the character of a dielectric. A dielectric dissipates electromagnetic energy into heat. The heat appears as the kinetic energy of the particles. RUT tells us this through the relationship it draws between Maxwell’s equations of electromagnetism and Schroedinger’s equation of quantum theory. If space is a dielectric as RUT indicates then light, as it travels from distant galaxies to us, loses some of its energy due to both the Doppler effect within an expanding universe and also to heat dissipation. It is this possibility of heat dissipation of light energy that imparts curvature to the Hubble line. Light from the farthest galaxies is light traveling to us from distant past times. In earlier times the distance that light needed to travel to reach us was less than it is now. Traveling a shorter distance means that the light had less opportunity to lose energy through dissipation and, consequently, is red-shifted less than we would expect.

Resonance Universe Theory fits the facts without the mathematical failures of relativity theory nor the absurdity of its physical predictions. Relativity theory lives on in America like a zombie because it sustains the status quo of the wealthy. It will never die so long as it provides an income for its adherents. The only way to disabuse the American people of the delusions of relativity theory is to deny it taxpayer money. Eventually the public will change the channel on their televisions, and stop watching the presentation of relativity theory nonsense.

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